Barbara Jeanne Fields (born Charleston, South Carolina) is a professor of American history at Columbia University. Her focus is on the history of the American South, 19th century social history, and the transition to capitalism in the United States.
She was raised in Washington, D.C., where she attended Morgan Elementary School, Banneker Junior High School, and Western High School. She received her B.A. from Harvard University in 1968, and her Ph.D. from Yale University in 1978. At Yale, she was one of the last doctoral students of C. Vann Woodward, one of the preeminent American historians of the twentieth century. She made a notable appearance on Ken Burns' documentary series, The Civil War. 
Fields was the first Afro-American woman to receive tenure at Columbia University. She has also taught at Northwestern University, the University of Michigan, and the University of Mississippi. She is currently at work on a book tentatively entitled Humane Letters: Writing in English about Human Affairs, as well as a study of slavery and emancipation in the Americas.
In May 2007, Bard College awarded Fields an honorary doctorate.
- 1992 MacArthur Fellows Program
- John H. Dunning Prize of the American Historical Association, for Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground: Maryland during the Nineteenth Century
- Founders Prize of the Confederate Memorial Literary Society, for The Destruction of Slavery
- Thomas Jefferson Prize of the Society for the History of the Federal Government, for The Destruction of Slavery
- 1994 Lincoln Prize by the Lincoln and Soldiers Institute at Gettysburg College, for Free At Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Emancipation, and the Civil War
- "Of Rogues and Geldings", American Historical Review, Vol 180 No 5, December 2003
- Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground: Maryland during the Nineteenth Century (Yale University Press),
- The Destruction of Slavery (Cambridge University Press, 1985), Editors Ira Berlin, Barbara J. Fields, Thavolia Glymph, Joseph P. Reidy, Leslie S. Rowland, ISBN 9780521132145
- Slaves No More: Three Essays on the Emancipation and the Civil War (Cambridge University Press, 1992) ISBN 9780521431026
- Free At Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Emancipation, and the Civil War (The New Press, 1992) ISBN 9781565840157
- "Presentation given by historian Barbara J. Fields at a "School", RACE, March 2001