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Benjamin Henry Grierson
[[Image:150px|center|200px|border]]Benjamin H. Grierson
Personal Information
Born: July 8, 1826(1826-07-08)
Place of Birth: {{{place of birth}}}
Died: September 3, 1911 (aged 85)
Place of Death: {{{place of death}}}
Nickname: {{{nickname}}}
Birth Name: {{{birth name}}}
Other Information
Allegiance: United States of America
Union
Participation(s): {{{participations}}}
Branch: United States Army
Union Army
Service Years: {{{service years}}}
Rank: Brigadier General, (brevet Major General)
Service number : {{{servicenumber}}}
Unit: {{{unit}}}
Commands: 6th Illinois Cavalry
10th U. S. Cavalry
Department of Arizona
Battles: American Civil War
Indian Wars
Awards: {{{awards}}}
Relations: {{{relations}}}
Other work: {{{otherwork}}}


Benjamin Henry Grierson (July 8, 1826, – August 31, 1911) was a music teacher and then a career officer in the United States Army. He was a cavalry general in the volunteer Union Army during the American Civil War and later led troops in the American Old West. He is most noted for a daring 1863 expedition through Confederate-held territory that severed enemy communication lines between Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Confederate commanders in the Eastern Theater. After the Civil war he organized and led the Buffalo Soldiers of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment from 1866 to 1888.

Early life and career[]

Grierson was born in the borough of Alleghany, a part of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was the youngest of five siblings. He became afraid of horses when at age eight he was kicked and nearly killed by a horse. In 1851, he became a music teacher and band leader in Jacksonville, Illinois.

He married Alice Kirk of Youngstown, Ohio, on September 24, 1854. The couple had seven children, four of whom survived to adulthood.

Civil War[]

With the outbreak of the Civil War, Grierson enlisted as a volunteer aide-de-camp to Maj. Gen. Benjamin M. Prentiss. Promoted to major on October 24, 1861, he joined the 6th Illinois Cavalry and was promoted to colonel of that regiment on April 12, 1862. His regiment was engaged in a number of small skirmishes and raids on railroads and facilities in Tennessee and Mississippi that spring and summer. In November, he became a brigade commander in the Cavalry Division of the Army of the Tennessee. In December, he participated in the pursuit of Confederate Earl Van Dorn after his Holly Springs raid against the supply lines of General Ulysses S. Grant.

File:BenjaminGrierson&staff.jpg

Union Cavalry Colonel Benjamin H. Grierson (seated with hand resting on chin) and staff

In the spring of 1863, he led Grierson's Raid, a major diversionary thrust deep into the Confederacy, ordered by Grant as part of his Vicksburg Campaign.[1] Grierson departed from La Grange, Tennessee, on April 17, in command of 1,700 men of the 6th and 7th Illinois and the 2nd Iowa Cavalry regiments. Over 17 days, his command marched 800 miles, repeatedly engaged the Confederates, disabled two railroads, captured many prisoners and horses, and destroyed vast amounts of property, finally ending in Baton Rouge on May 2.[2]Historian John D. Winters in The Civil War in Louisiana (1963) reports that Grierson's raid "struck fear in the hearts of the citizens and somewhat demoralized the Confederate forces who failed to stop the move."[3]

More importantly, Grierson diverted the attention of the Confederate defenders of Vicksburg away from General Grant's main thrust. He was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers in June. While ending his raid in Louisiana he was able to take part in Nathaniel P. Banks' siege of Port Hudson as commander of the XIX Corps cavalry.

In June 1864 Grierson returned to command a cavalry division in the Army of the Tennessee during William T. Sherman's Meridian Campaign. He still was still in division command during Samuel D. Sturgis' ill-fated encounter with Nathan B. Forrest at the Battle of Brice's Crossroads. Shortly after that battle Grierson was transferred to command the Cavalry in the District of West Tennessee. He was attached to Andrew J. Smith's XVI Corps and fared much better against Forrest at the battle of Tupelo.

In 1864 Grierson was assigned to the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Mississippi. The following year, he took part in the campaign against Mobile. On March 2, 1867, Grierson received a brevet promotion to the rank of major general in the United States Army for his famous raid.

Postbellum service in the West[]

Grierson decided to remain in the Regular Army after the war and received the rank of colonel. His lack of West Point credentials made him suspect to many fellow officers. He organized the 10th U.S. Cavalry, one of two mounted regiments composed of black enlisted men and white officers, called the Buffalo Soldiers. This assignment also made him unpopular with other officers, including his superior, General Philip Henry Sheridan, because of his support for and trust in his troops. His sympathy and courtesy to Native American tribes also led to questions about his judgment.

"The only White officer who supports the unit is Regimental Commanding Officer Colonel Benjamin Grierson. Ostracized by other officers for his enthusiastic command of the African-American troops, Grierson believes in the abilities, dedication, and record of performance of the Buffalo Soldiers and declines offers to lead at any other post. General Pike offers to relieve Grierson 'of this self-imposed exile and have him commanding a real cavalry regiment within a month,' but Grierson refuses" — Turner Network Television's documentary, "Buffalo Soldiers".

Postbellum command history[]

  • 1867–69: Commanded Fort Riley, then later Fort Gibson.
  • 1868–69: Headed the District of the Indian Territory.
  • 1869–72: Selected the site for Fort Sill, Oklahoma, supervised construction of the post, and acted as commander. He angered residents of the Texas frontier with his support of the peace policy on the Kiowa-Comanche Reservation. Saved the life of visiting General William Tecumseh Sherman, during a confrontation with Lone Wolf, principal chief of the Kiowa, over responsibility for an attack on a wagon train near Salt Creek Prairie, Texas.
  • 1873–74: Superintendent of the Mounted Recruiting Service at St. Louis.
  • 1875–78: Commander at Fort Concho, Texas.
  • 1878–80: Commander of the District of the Pecos. In 1880 he helped defeat Victorio to end the Indian threat to West Texas.
  • 1882–82: Moved his headquarters to Fort Davis, Texas.
  • 1883–83: Commanded the Department of Texas in September and October.
  • 1885–86: Transferred to Arizona, commanded Whipple Barracks and later Fort Grant.
  • 1886–88: Commanded the District of New Mexico. There he dealt sympathetically and effectively with problems on the Jicarilla and Navajo reservations.
  • 1888–90: Commanded the Department of Arizona.
  • April 5, 1890: Promoted to brigadier general.
  • July 8, 1890: Retired

His wife, Alice, died August 14, 1888; Grierson later married Lillian Atwood King, a widow, on July 28, 1897. During his life, he had homes in Jacksonville, Illinois, Fort Concho, and a summer home at Omena, Michigan. In 1907 he suffered a debilitating stroke; he died on August 31, 1911, in Omena, LeeLanau County, Michigan, and is buried in Jacksonville East Cemetery in Jacksonville, a town in Morgan County, Illinois.

Grierson in media[]

Colonel Grierson is a prominent figure in Turner Network Television's documentary, "Buffalo Soldiers".

The part of Colonel Marlowe, played by John Wayne in the movie The Horse Soldiers, is loosely based on Grierson.

See also[]

32x28px Biography portal
32x28px United States Army portal
32x28px American Civil War portal

Notes[]

  1. *Dee Brown. Grierson's Raid: A Cavalry Adventure of the Civil War (reprint ed.). ISBN 978-0890290613. 
  2. "Harper's Weekly". June 6, 1863. http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war/1863/june/grierson-raid.htm. Retrieved October 7, 2007. 
  3. John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963, ISBN: 0-8071-0834-0, p. 195

References[]

Further reading[]

  • Leckie, William H.; Shirley A. Leckie (1998). Unlikely Warriors: General Benjamin H. Grierson and His Family. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 080613027X. 

External links[]

Template:Buffalo Soldiers

ja:ベンジャミン・グリアソン

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