|This article includes a list of references or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (April 2010)|
July 31, 1803|
March 8, 1889 (aged 85)|
John Ericsson (July 31, 1803 – March 8, 1889) was an American Swedish-born inventor and mechanical engineer, as was his brother, Nils Ericson. He was born at Långbanshyttan in Värmland, Sweden, but primarily came to be active in the United States.
Early career[edit | edit source]
John's and Nils's father Olaf Ericsson who worked as the supervisor for a mine in Värmland had lost money in speculations and had to move his family from Värmland to Forsvik in 1810. There he worked as a 'director of blastings' during the excavation of the Swedish Göta Canal. The extraordinary skills of the two brothers were discovered by Baltzar von Platen, the architect of the Göta Canal. The two brothers were dubbed cadets of mechanics of the Swedish Royal Navy and engaged as trainees at the canal enterprise. At the age of fourteen, John was already working independently as a surveyor. His assistant had to carry a footstool for him to reach the instruments during surveying work.
At the age of seventeen he joined the Swedish army in Jämtland, serving in the Jämtland Field Ranger Regiment, as a Second Lieutenant, but was soon promoted to Lieutenant. He was sent to northern Sweden to do surveying, and in his spare time he constructed a heat engine which used the fumes from the fire instead of steam as a propellant. His skill and interest in mechanics made him resign from the army and move to England in 1826. However, his heat engine was not a success, as his prototype was designed to use birch wood as fuel, and would not work well with coal, which was the main fuel used in England.
Notwithstanding the disappointment, he invented several other mechanisms instead based on steam, improving the heating process by adding fans to increase oxygen supply to the fire bed. In 1829 the steam engine he built with John Braithwaite, "Novelty", joined the Rainhill Trials, a competition arranged by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Although it was the fastest in the competition, it suffered recurring boiler problems and the competition was won by the English engineer George and his son Robert Stephenson with Rocket.
By helping to quell the celebrated Astor House fire, Ericsson's steam fire engine proved an outstanding technical success, but met with resistance from London's established 'Fire Laddies' and municipal authorities. An engine Ericsson constructed for Sir John Franklin's use failed under the Antarctic conditions for which, out of Franklin's desire to conceal his destination, it had not been designed. At this stage of Ercisson's career the most successful and enduring of his inventions was the steam condenser, which allowed a steamer to produce fresh water for its boilers while at sea. His 'deep sea lead,' a pressure-activated fathometer was another minor, but enduring success.
The commercial failure and development costs of some of the machines devised and built by Ericsson during this period put him into debtors' prison for an interval and at this time he also married 19-year-old Amelia Byam, a marriage that was nothing but a huge disaster and ended in the couple's separation until Amelia's death.
Propeller design[edit | edit source]
He then improved the ship design with two screw-propellers moving in different directions (as opposed to earlier tests with this technology, which used a single screw). However, the Admiralty disapproved of the invention, which led to the fortunate contact with the encouraging American captain Robert Stockton who had Ericsson design a propeller steamer for him and told him to bring his invention to the United States of America, as it would supposedly be more welcomed in that place. As a result, Ericsson moved to New York in 1839. Stockton's plan was for Ericsson to oversee the development of a new class of frigate with Stockton using his considerable political connections to grease the wheels. Finally, after the succession to the Presidency by John Tyler, funds were allocated for a new design. Unfortunately they only received funding for a 700-ton sloop instead of a frigate. The sloop eventually became the USS Princeton, named after Stockton's hometown.
The ship took about three years to complete and was perhaps the most advanced warship of its time. In addition to twin screw propellers, it was originally designed to mount a 12-inch muzzle loading gun on a revolving pedestal. The gun had also been designed by Ericsson and used the hoop construction method to pre-tension the breech, adding to its strength and safely allowing the use of a larger charge. Other innovations on the ship design included a collapsible funnel and an improved recoil system.
The relations between Ericsson and Stockton had grown tense over time and, nearing the completion of the ship, Stockton began working to force Ericsson out of the project. Stockton carefully avoided letting outsiders know that Ericsson was the primary inventor. Stockton attempted to claim as much credit for himself as possible, even designing a second 12-inch gun to be mounted on the Princeton. Unfortunately, not understanding the design of the first gun (originally name "The Orator", renamed by Stockton to "The Oregon"), the second gun was fatally flawed.
When the ship was initially launched it was a tremendous success. On October 20, 1843 Princeton won a speed competition against the paddle-steamer SS Great Western, which had until then been regarded as the fastest steamer afloat. Unfortunately, during a firing demonstration of Stockton's gun the breech broke, killing the US Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur and the Secretary of the Navy Thomas Gilmer, as well as six others. Stockton attempted to deflect blame onto Ericsson with moderate success despite the fact that Ericsson's gun was sound and it was Stockton's gun that had failed. Stockton also refused to pay Ericsson and, using his political connections, Stockton managed to block the Navy from paying him. These actions led to Ericsson's deep resentment toward the US Navy.
Friendship with Cornelius H. DeLamater[edit | edit source]
When Ericsson arrived from England and settled in New York, he was persuaded by Samuel Risley of Greenwich Village to give his work to the Phoenix Foundry. There he met Cornelius H. DeLamater and soon a mutual attachment developed between the two, and rarely thereafter did Ericsson or DeLamater enter upon a business venture without first consulting the other." Personally, their friendship never faltered, though strained by the pressures of business and Ericsson's quick temper, DeLamater called Ericsson "John" and Ericsson called DeLamater by his middle nick-name "Harry", intimacies almost unknown in Ericsson's other relationships. In time, the DeLamater Iron Works became known as the Asylum where Capt Ericsson had free rein to experiment and attempt new feats. The Iron Witch was next constructed, the first iron steamboat. The first hot-air invention of Capt Ericsson was first introduced in the ship Ericsson, built entirely by DeLamater. The DeLamater Iron Works also launched the first submarine boat, first self propelled torpedo, and first torpedo boat. When DeLamater died on February 2, 1889, Ericsson could not be consoled. His death exactly one month to the day later was not surprising to his friends and acquaintances."
Hot air engine[edit | edit source]
Ericsson then proceeded to invent independently the caloric, or hot air engine in the 1820s which used hot air, caloric in the scientific parlance of the day, instead of steam as a propellant. A similar device had been patented in 1816 by the Reverend Robert Stirling, whose technical priority of invention provides the usual term 'Stirling Engine' for the device. Ericsson's engine was not initially successful due to the differences in combustion temperatures between Swedish wood and British coal. In spite of his setbacks, Ericsson was awarded the Rumford Prize of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1862 for his invention. In his later years, the caloric engine would render Ericsson comfortably wealthy, as its boilerless design made it a much safer and more practical means of power for small industry than steam engines. Ericsson's incorporation of a 'regenerator' heat sink for his engine made it tremendously fuel-efficient.
Ship design[edit | edit source]
On September 26, 1854 Ericsson presented Napoleon III of France with drawings of iron-clad armored battle ships with a dome-shaped gun tower, and even though the French emperor praised this invention, he did nothing to bring it to practical application.
USS Monitor[edit | edit source]
Shortly after the American Civil War broke out in 1861, the Confederacy began developing an ironclad based on the hull of the USS Merrimack which had been burned by Federal troops before the naval base at Norfolk — Gosport Navy Yard — had been captured by the recently seceded Commonwealth of Virginia. The United States Congress addressed this issue in August 1861 and recommended that armored ships be built for the Union Navy. Ericsson still had a dislike of the U.S. Navy but he was convinced by Cornelius Scranton Bushnell to work on an ironclad for them. Ericsson presented drawings of the USS Monitor, a novel design of armored ship, which after much controversy was eventually built and finished on March 6, 1862. The ship went from plans to launch in approximately 100 days, an amazing achievement.
On March 8, the Southern ironclad CSS Virginia was wreaking havoc on the Union Blockading Squadron in Virginia. Then, with the appearance of the Monitor, a battle on March 9, 1862 at Hampton Roads, Virginia, ended in a stalemate between the two iron warships, and saved the Northern fleet from defeat. After this, numerous monitors were built, and are believed to have considerably influenced the victory of the Northern states. Although primitive by modern standards, many basic design elements of the Monitor were copied in future warships by other designers.
Later, Ericsson worked with torpedo inventions, in particular the Destroyer, a torpedo boat that could fire a cannon from an underwater port. He also provided some technical support for John Philip Holland in his early submarine experiments. In the book Contributions to the Centennial Exhibition (1877, reprinted 1976) he presented his "sun engines", which collected solar heat for a hot air engine. One of these designs earned Ericsson additional sums after being converted to work as a methane gas engine.
Although none of his inventions created any large industries, he is regarded as one of the most influential mechanical engineers ever. After his death in 1889 his remains were brought from the United States to Stockholm by USS Baltimore; his final resting place is at Filipstad, in Värmland.
Inventions[edit | edit source]
- The surface condenser
- The hot air engine
- The world's first monitor, USS Monitor, was both designed and built by Ericsson for the Union Navy in the American Civil War
- Torpedo technology, especially Destroyer, an advanced torpedo boat
- The solar machine, using concave mirrors to gather sun radiation strong enough to run an engine.
- USS Princeton (1843)
- Hoop gun construction
Fellowships[edit | edit source]
- Foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1850, Swedish member from 1863
- Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences in 1852
- Honorary Doctorate at Lund University in 1868
Monuments and memorials[edit | edit source]
Monuments in honor of John Ericsson have been erected at:
- John Ericsson National Memorial on The Mall in Washington, D.C.
- The John Ericsson Room at the American Swedish Historical Museum in Chicago
- Battery Park, in New York City
- Nybroplan in Stockholm
- Kungsportsavenyn in Gothenburg.
- John Ericsson Street, in Lund, Sweden
- John Ericsson fountain, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia
- Neighborhood of Ericsson, Minneapolis
For ships named in his honor, see:
References[edit | edit source]
- Legislative Document by New York State Legislature, vol 37, no. 117-118. J.B. Lyon Co. 1920. pp. 202–213. http://books.google.com/books?id=ig5LAAAAMAAJ&printsec=titlepage#PPA202,M1.
- Nelson, James L. (2005). Reign of Iron: The Story of the First Battling Ironclads. Harper Collins. ISBN 0060524049, 9780060524043. http://books.google.com/books?id=d8XD-j--EVsC&pg=PA149&lpg=PA149&dq=Delamater+Iron+works+monitor&source=bl&ots=wb-P4Hew0q&sig=QH7EKP0z-BCtWFqpPHrrQlQNNkw&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=5&ct=result.
- "6". Old Steamboat Days on the Hudson River. The Grafton Press. 1907. http://www.hrmm.org/diglib/oldsteam/chapter6.html.
- "Honors for Capt Ericsson" (PDF). The New York Times. December 11, 1921. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9505E3D71431EF33A25752C1A9649D946095D6CF.
- Carr, Edward A.T.; Michael W. Carr, Kari Ann Carr (1994). Faded Laurels, The History of Eaton's Neck and Asharoken. Heart of the Lakes Publishing. ISBN 1557871191, 9781557871190. http://books.google.com/books?id=OP4MAQAACAAJ&dq=faded+laurels.
Trivia[edit | edit source]
|Lists of miscellaneous information should be avoided. Please relocate any relevant information into appropriate sections or articles. (June 2008)|
- In the 1936 film Hearts in Bondage, which takes place partially aboard the Monitor, John Ericsson was portrayed by actor Fritz Leiber, Sr.
- In Harry Harrison's Stars and Stripes trilogy, the Monitor is just the beginning of Ericsson's contributions to the US war effort. New ocean-going ironclads are built by the inventor, superior to their British counterparts. He also creates an armored self-propelled gun platform using his own internal combustion engine as well as a heavily-armored mortar carrier ship, capable of leveling any fortification in under an hour. All these inventions allow General Sherman to implement his new lightning warfare strategy.
[edit | edit source]
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to: John Ericsson|
- The Life of John Ericsson By William Conant Church, published 1911, 660 pages.
- The Original United States Warship "Monitor" Correspondence between Cornelius Scranton Bushnell, John Ericsson, Gideon Wells, published 1899, 52 pages, compiled by William S. Wells.
- John Ericsson National Memorial in Washington
- John Ericsson Society, New York - Centennial Anniversary year 2007
- John Ericsson at National Inventors Hall of Fame
- Monitor National Marine Sanctuary
- John Ericsson Statue in Gothenburg
- Some Pioneers in Air Engine Design - John Ericsson
- John Ericsson's solar engine
See also[edit | edit source]
- American Swedish Historical Museum, John Ericsson Room
cs:John Ericsson de:John Ericsson et:John Ericsson es:John Ericsson fr:John Ericsson gl:John Ericsson nl:John Ericsson ja:ジョン・エリクソン no:John Ericsson pl:John Ericsson pt:John Ericsson ro:John Ericsson fi:John Ericsson sv:John Ericsson