|Salmon Portland Chase|
|Salmon P. Chase|
December 6, 1864 – May 7, 1873
|Nominated by||Abraham Lincoln|
|Preceded by||Roger B. Taney|
|Succeeded by||Morrison R. Waite|
March 7, 1861 – June 30, 1864
|Preceded by||John A. Dix|
|Succeeded by||William P. Fessenden|
23rd Governor of Ohio
January 14, 1856 – January 9, 1860
|Lieutenant||Thomas H. Ford (1856–1858) |
Martin Welker (1858–1860)
|Preceded by||William Medill|
|Succeeded by||William Dennison Jr.|
March 4, 1849 – March 3, 1855
|Preceded by||William Allen|
|Succeeded by||George E. Pugh|
March 4 – March 7, 1861
|Preceded by||George E. Pugh|
|Succeeded by||John Sherman|
|Born||January 13, 1808|
Cornish, New Hampshire, U.S.
|Died||May 7, 1873 (aged 65)|
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Political party||Free Soil, Liberty, Republican, Democrat|
|Spouse(s)||i) Katherine Jane Garmiss|
ii) Eliza Ann Smith
iii) Sarah Bella Dunlop Ludlow
|Alma mater||Cincinnati College|
|Profession||Politician, Lawyer, Judge|
|Signature||Salmon P. Chase's signature|
Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist who served as U.S. Senator from Ohio and the 23rd Governor of Ohio; as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln; and as Chief Justice of the United States.
Chase articulated the "Slave Power conspiracy" thesis well before Lincoln. He coined the slogan of the Free Soil Party, "Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men." He devoted his energies to the destruction of what he considered the Slave Power – the conspiracy of Southern slave owners to seize control of the federal government and block the progress of liberty.
Early life and education[edit | edit source]
Chase was born in Cornish, New Hampshire to Ithmar Chase and his wife Janet Ralston. His father died when the boy was nine years old. Janet Chase was left a widow with "a small amount of property and ten surviving children". Salmon was raised by his uncle, Philander Chase, an Episcopal bishop.
He studied in the common schools of Windsor, Vermont; Worthington, Ohio; and Cincinnati College before entering the junior class at Dartmouth College. He was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity and Phi Beta Kappa, and graduated from Dartmouth in 1826. While at Dartmouth, he taught at the Royalton Academy in Royalton, Vermont.
Entrance into politics[edit | edit source]
In 1830, Chase moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he quickly gained a position of prominence at the bar. He published an annotated edition of the laws of Ohio which was long considered a standard. The death of his first wife in 1835, triggered Chase's spiritual reawakening and devotion to causes more aligned with his faith, including Abolition.
He worked initially with the American Sunday School Union and began defending fugitive slaves. At a time when public opinion in Cincinnati was dominated by Southern business connections, Chase, influenced probably by James G. Birney, associated himself with the anti-slavery movement. He became the leader of the political reformers, as opposed to the Garrisonian abolitionist movement.
From his defense of escaped slaves seized in Ohio under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793, Chase was dubbed the Attorney General for Fugitive Slaves. His argument in the Jones v. Van Zandt case on the constitutionality of fugitive slave laws before the U.S. Supreme Court attracted particular attention. In this and similar cases, the court ruled against him, and John Van Zandt's conviction was upheld. Chase contended that slavery was local, not national, and that it could exist only by virtue of positive state law. He argued that the federal government was not empowered by the Constitution to create slavery anywhere, and that when a slave leaves the jurisdiction of a state where slavery is legal, he ceases to be a slave. He continues to be a man and leaves behind the law that made him a slave.
Elected as a Whig to the Cincinnati City Council in 1840, Chase left that party the next year. For seven years he was the leader of the Liberty Party in Ohio. He helped balance its idealism with his pragmatic approach and political thought. He was skillful in drafting platforms and addresses, and prepared the national Liberty platform of 1843 and the Liberty address of 1845. Building the Liberty Party was slow going. By 1848 Chase was leader in the effort to combine the Liberty Party with the Barnburners or Van Buren Democrats of New York to form the Free Soil Party.
The Free Soil movement[edit | edit source]
In 1849, Chase was elected to the United States Senate from Ohio on the Free Soil Party ticket. In 1855 he was elected governor of Ohio. He drafted the Free-Soil platform, and it was chiefly through his influence that Van Buren was nominated for the presidency. Chase's goal, however, was not to establish a permanent new party organization, but to bring pressure to bear upon Northern Democrats to force them to adopt a policy opposed to the extension of slavery.
During his service in the Senate (1849–1855), Chase was the champion of anti-slavery. He spoke ably against the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska legislation, and the subsequent violence in Kansas, convinced Chase of the futility of trying to influence the Democrats.
He was a leader in the movement to form a new party opposing the extension of slavery. He tried to unite the liberal Democrats with the dwindling Whig Party, which led to establishment of the Republican Party. "The Appeal of the Independent Democrats in Congress to the People of the United States", written by Chase and Giddings, and published in the New York Times on January 24, 1854, may be regarded as the earliest draft of the Republican party creed. Chase was the first Republican governor of Ohio, serving from 1856 to 1860, where he supported women's rights, public education and prison reform.
Chase sought the Republican nomination for president in 1860; at the Party convention, he got 49 votes on the first ballot, but was unable to gain enough support in other states. After his loss, he threw his support to Abraham Lincoln. With the exception of William H. Seward, Chase was the most prominent Republican in the country and had done more against slavery than any other Republican, but he failed to get the nomination. His views on protection were unorthodox from a Republican point of view, and the old line Whigs did not forgive his previous collaboration with the Democrats.
He was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate in 1860; took his seat March 4, 1861, but resigned three days later to become Secretary of the Treasury under Lincoln. He was member of the Peace Convention of 1861 held in Washington, D.C., in an effort to prevent the impending war.
Secretary of the Treasury[edit | edit source]
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Chase served as Secretary of the Treasury in President Lincoln's cabinet from 1861 to 1864, during the Civil War. In that period of crisis, there were two great changes in American financial policy, the establishment of a national banking system and the issue of paper currency. The former was Chase's own particular measure. He suggested the idea, worked out the important principles and many of the details, and induced the Congress to approve them. It not only secured an immediate market for government bonds, but also provided a permanent uniform, stable national currency. Chase ensured that the Union could sell debt to pay for the war effort. He worked with Jay Cooke & Company to successfully manage the sale of $500 million in government war bonds (known as 5/20s) in 1862.
The first U.S. federal currency, the greenback demand note, was printed in 1861-1862, during Chase's tenure as Secretary of the Treasury. It was his responsibility to design the notes. In an effort to further his political career, his face appeared on a variety of U.S. paper currency, starting with the $1 bill so that the people would recognise him.
Most recently, in order to honor the man who introduced the modern system of banknotes, Chase was on the $10,000 bill, printed from 1928 to 1946. Chase was instrumental in placing the phrase "In God We Trust" on United States currency.
Chief Justice of the United States[edit | edit source]
Perhaps Chase's chief defect was an insatiable desire for high office. Never truly accepting his defeat at the 1860 Republican National Convention, throughout his term at the Treasury Department Chase repeatedly attempted to curry favor over Lincoln for another run at the Presidency in 1864. Before the election of 1864, Chase attempted to gain leverage over Lincoln three times by threatening resignation (which Lincoln declined largely because of his need for Chase at Treasury). However, with the 1864 nomination secured and the financial footing of the government in solid shape to Chase's great surprise, Lincoln accepted his fourth resignation offer in June 1864. Partially to placate the Radical wing of the party, Lincoln mentioned Chase as a potential Supreme Court nominee. Thus, upon Roger B. Taney's death, Lincoln nominated him as the Chief Justice of the United States, which Chase held from 1864 until his own death in 1873. In striking contrast with Taney, one of Chase's first acts as Chief Justice was to appoint John Rock as the first African-American attorney to argue cases before the Supreme Court.
In his capacity as Chief Justice, Chase presided at the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson in 1868. Among his most important decisions while on the court were:
- Texas v. White (74 U.S. 700), 1869, in which he asserted that the Constitution provided for an permanent union, composed of indestructible states, while allowing some possibility of divisibility "through revolution, or through consent of the States.";
- Veazie Banks v. Fenno (75 U.S 533), 1869, on banking legislation of the Civil War that imposed a tax of 10 percent on state banknotes; and
- Hepburn v. Griswold (75 U.S. 603), 1870, which declared certain parts of the legal tender acts to be unconstitutional. When the legal tender decision was reversed after the appointment of new judges, in 1871 and 1872 (Legal Tender Cases, 79 U.S. 457), Chase prepared a very able dissenting opinion.
Toward the end of his life he gradually drifted back toward his old Democratic position, and made an unsuccessful effort to secure the Democratic nomination for the presidency in 1868. He "was passed over because of his stance in favor of voting rights for black men." He helped to found the Liberal Republican Party in 1872, unsuccessfully seeking its presidential nomination. Chase was also a freemason, active in the lodges of Midwestern society. He collaborated with John Purdue, the founder of Lafayette Bank and Purdue University. Eventually, JP Morgan Chase & Co. would purchase Purdue National Corporation of Lafayette, Indiana in 1984.
As early as 1868 Chase concluded that:
- "Congress was right in not limiting, by its reconstruction acts, the right of suffrage to whites; but wrong in the exclusion from suffrage of certain classes of citizens and all unable to take its prescribed retrospective oath, and wrong also in the establishment of despotic military governments for the States and in authorizing military commissions for the trial of civilians in time of peace. There should have been as little military government as possible; no military commissions; no classes excluded from suffrage; and no oath except one of faithful obedience and support to the Constitution and laws, and of sincere attachment to the constitutional Government of the United States."
Death and legacy[edit | edit source]
Chase died in New York City in 1873. His remains were interred first in Oak Hill Cemetery in Washington, D.C., and later reinterred in Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati, Ohio. Chase had been an active member of St. Paul Episcopal Cathedral, Cincinnati.
Chase Hall, the main barracks and dormitory at the United States Coast Guard Academy, is named for Chase in honor of his service as Secretary of the Treasury. Chase's portrait is on the $10,000 bill. In addition, Chase County, Kansas is named in his honor. The United States Coast Guard Cutter Chase (WHEC 718) is named for him.
His daughter Kate was a notable socialite, acting as her father's official hostess in Washington and unofficial campaign manager.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Anti-Nebraska Party – political party
- Appeal of the Independent Democrats
- Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States
- Institutions named for Salmon Chase
- List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
- List of United States Chief Justices by time in office
- List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office
- United States Supreme Court cases during the Chase Court
- Origins of the American Civil War
- Semi-Colon Club
- Places named for Salmon Chase
References[edit | edit source]
- "Federal Judicial Center: Salmon Chase". 2009-12-12. http://www.fjc.gov/servlet/tGetInfo?jid=414. Retrieved 2009-12-12.
- Niven, John (1995). Salmon P. Chase. Oxford University Press. pp. 96. ISBN 9780195046533.
- Lydia Rapoza, "The Life of Salmon P. Chase, Attorney General of Fugitive Slaves 1808-1873"
- Geisst, Charles R. (1999). Wall Street. Oxford University Press. pp. 54. ISBN 9780195115123.
- Salmon Portland Chase Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911 Edition, Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 956
- Chase's biography at HarpWeek
- Aleksandar Pavković, Peter Radan, Creating New States: Theory and Practice of Secession, p. 222, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
- Texas v. White, 74 U.S. 700 (1868) at Cornell University Law School Supreme Court collection.
- J. W. Schuckers, The Life and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase, (1874). p. 585; letter of May 30, 1868, to August Belmont
- Salmon P. Chase memorial at Find a Grave.
- Christensen, George A. (1983) Here Lies the Supreme Court: Gravesites of the Justices, Yearbook Supreme Court Historical Society at Internet Archive.
- See also, Christensen, George A., Here Lies the Supreme Court: Revisited, Journal of Supreme Court History, Volume 33 Issue 1, Pages 17 - 41 (19 Feb 2008), University of Alabama.
Secondary sources[edit | edit source]
- Blue, Frederick J. Salmon P. Chase: A Life in Politics (1987)
- Flanders, Henry. The Lives and Times of the Chief Justices of the United States Supreme Court. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1874 at Google Books.
- Friedman, Leon. "Salmon P. Chase" in The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Volume 2. (1997) pp 552–67.
- Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (1970)
- Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln (2005) on Lincoln's cabinet.
- Hendrick, Burton J. Lincoln's War Cabinet (1946)
- Niven, John. Salmon P. Chase: A Biography (1995).
- Randall, James G. "Salmon Portland Chase," Dictionary of American Biography, B, 4: 27-34; Blue, Chase.
- Richardson, Heather Cox. The Greatest Nation of the Earth: Republican Economic Policies during the Civil War (1997)
- J. W. Schuckers, The Life and Public Services of Salmon Portland Chase, (1874).
- William M. Evarts. Eulogy on Chief-Justice Chase (1874),
Salmon Chase is one of the major figures in the extensively researched historical novel "Lincoln" by Gore Vidal.
Primary sources[edit | edit source]
- Niven, John, et al. eds. ed. The Salmon P. Chase Papers Volume: 2, 1823–57 (1993) vol 1–5 have coverage to 1873
- Niven, John, et al. eds. ed. The Salmon P. Chase Papers Volume: 3, 1858–63 (1993)
- Donald, David ed. Inside Lincoln's Cabinet: The Civil War Diaries of Salmon P. Chase (1954)
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Abraham, Henry J. (1992). Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court. 3d. ed.. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506557-3.
- Cushman, Clare (2001). The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies,1789-1995 (2nd ed.). (Supreme Court Historical Society, Congressional Quarterly Books). ISBN 1568021267; ISBN 978-1-56802-126-3..
- Frank, John P.; Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel, editors (1995). The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 0791013774; ISBN 978-0-7910-1377-9.
- Hall, Kermit L., ed. (1992). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195058356; ISBN 978-0-19-505835-2..
- Martin, Fenton S.; Goehlert, Robert U. (1990). The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books. ISBN 0871875543.
- Urofsky, Melvin I. (1994). The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing. pp. 590. ISBN 0815311761; ISBN 978-0-8153-1176-8..
[edit | edit source]
|40x40px||Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Salmon P. Chase|
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Salmon P. Chase|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Chase, Salmon Portland.|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- The Life of Salmon P. Chase, Attorney General of Fugitive Slaves.
- Salmon P. Chase at Tulane University Law School.
- Biography at "Mr. Lincoln's White House"
- Mr. Lincoln and Freedom: Salmon P. Chase
- Eulogy on Chief-Justice Chase, delivered by William M. Evarts, 1874
- Bibliography, Sixth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals.
- Biography, Sixth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals.
- Location of Papers, Sixth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals
|United States Senate|
|United States Senator (Class 3) from Ohio
Served alongside: Thomas Corwin, Thomas Ewing, Benjamin Wade
George E. Pugh
George E. Pugh
|United States Senator (Class 3) from Ohio
Served alongside: Benjamin Wade
|Governor of Ohio
Roger B. Taney
|Chief Justice of the United States
Template:Start U.S. Supreme Court composition Template:U.S. Supreme Court composition 1864–1865 Template:U.S. Supreme Court composition 1865–1867 Template:U.S. Supreme Court composition 1867–1870 Template:U.S. Supreme Court composition 1870–1872 Template:U.S. Supreme Court composition 1873 Template:End U.S. Supreme Court composition
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