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At the beginning of the American Civil War, Pike was appointed as Confederate envoy to the Native Americans.

The Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws was a treaty signed on July 12, 1861 between the Choctaw and Chickasaw (American Indian Nations in Oklahoma) and the Confederate States of America. At the beginning of the American Civil War, Albert Pike was appointed as Confederate envoy to Native Americans. In this capacity he negotiated several treaties, one of the most important being with Cherokee chief John Ross, which was concluded in 1861.[1] The treaty was ratified and was proclaimed on December 20, 1861 by the Confederacy. The Choctaw and Chickasaw also duly ratified the treaty.


The preamble begins with,

The Congress of the Confederate States of America, having by "An act for the protection of certain Indian tribes," approved the twenty-first day of May, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, offered to assume and accept the protectorate of the several nations and tribes of Indians occupying the country west of Arkansas and Missouri, and recognized them as their wards, subject to all the right, privileges and immunities, titles and guarantees with each of said nation and tribes under treaties made with them by the United States of America; and the Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations of Indians having each asseuted thereto, upon certain terms and conditions; ...

—-Treaty with Choctaws and Chickasaws, 1861

File:Allen wright.jpg

Allen Wright was one of the Commissioners for the Choctaw Nation. Wright, a scholar who complied a Choctaw dictionary, is credited with creating the state name Red People or Oklahoma.


Holmes Colbert was a commissioner for the Chickasaw Nation. Colbert developed the Chickasaw Nation's constitution in the 1850s.[2]

The treaty had 64 terms. The following terms of the treaty were:

  1. Perpetual peace and friendship
  2. Protection provided by the Confederacy
  3. Confederacy will not abandon or desert them
  4. Boundaries defined
  5. Boundaries defined continued
  6. Safe passage for Choctaws through Chickasaw district
  7. Choctaw and Chickasaw nations to give full assent to the provisions of the act of the Confederacy
  8. Confederacy solemnly guarantees the lands held the by the Choctaws and Chickasaws forever
  9. Land never will be sold
  10. No state or territory laws of the Confederacy will be passed for the Choctaws and Chickasaws governments
  11. Confederacy renews leased area from the United States
  12. Indians in the leased area shall be subject to Confederacy laws until they are capable of self-government or subjected to Choctaw and Chickasaw laws.
  13. Confederacy waterways are free to Choctaw and Chickasaw nations.
  14. Choctaw and Chickasaw nations have unrestricted right of self-government
  15. Intruders in Choctaw or Chickasaw nations subjected to removal by the nations or the Confederacy
  16. Land tracts set aside for Confederacy agencies
  17. Confederacy forts in Choctaw and Chickasaw country
  18. Confederacy right of way for railroads, telegraph lines
  19. No Settlements or farms near forts, posts, or agencies
  20. Appointments for Confederacy agent and interpreter
  21. Protection from other domestric strife, white or Indian hostilities
  22. Legal assistance, intrusion prevention, and removal of dangerous or improper persons
  23. Property thief and recovery and payments for property not found
  24. Licensed traders approved by National Council and trading taxed
  25. United States laws removed that regulated Choctaw or Chickasaw selling
  26. Choctaws and Chickasaws can take, hold and pass, purchase or descent lands in any of the Confederate States
  27. Choctasw and Chickasaws are entitled to one representative in the House of Representatives of the Confederate States of America
  28. Choctaw and Chickasaw country may be admitted as a state when they elect to do so and become citizens in the Confederate States of America
  29. Land sales proceeds belong to members of the Choctaw and Chickasaw
  30. If Creek, Seminole, and Cherokee desire to become part of the Confederate States of America, then their countries maybe annexed to become part of the Choctaw and Chickasaw confederate state


There were a total of 36 signatories.

Commissioner of the Confederate States: Albert Pike

Commissioners of the Choctaw Nation: R.M. Jones, Geo. W. Harkins, jr., Allen Wright, Coleman Cole, William b. Pitchlynn

Commissioners of the Chickasaw Nation: Holmes Colbert, Winchester Colbert, Ashalatobbe

See also[]

  • List of Choctaw Treaties


  1. Handbook of Texas Online, s.v. "Pike, Albert," (accessed March 4, 2009).
  2. Burt & Ferguson. "Chapter 2 A Small Gallery of Notable People". Indians of the Southeast: Then and Now. Abingdon Press. p. 149–150. ISBN 0687187931. 

Further reading[]

  • Matthews, James M. The Statues at Large of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, 1864; reprint, Buffalo: printed by William S. Hein & Company, 1988: 311-31.

External links[]